Oxford Reference books mislead on UN commitments


Errors and misleading material in:


Oxford Reference website: Millennium Development Goals Overview                   

International Studies Encyclopedia Wiley-Blackwell                               2017

Dictionary of Business and Management in India                                    2017

Oxford Dictionary of Economics, Fifth edition. Oxford                             2017

HIV and AIDS, Very Short Introduction. 2nd edition. Oxford                    2016

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability                                                  2016

Dictionary of Epidemiology (6th ed.)  Oxford                                             2016

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China                                                                2016

Oxford Companion to International Relations                                          2014

Oxford Dictionary of Human Geography                                                  2013

Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women                                               2013

New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3rd ed.)                         2012

Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford                                                   2011

Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace                                             2010

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3rd ed.)                         2009

Encyclopedia of Human Rights. Oxford                                                     2009

Oxford Companion to Global Change                                                        2009

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics                                                  2008

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World                                              2008

Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History                                   2008

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20th ed.)                                                      2008

Dictionary of Public Health. Oxford                                                           2007




 

Oxford Reference website


Millennium Development Goals

 

Overview

Millennium Development Goals

"A set of eight goals adopted at the UN Millennium Summit [!] in September 2000 to alleviate conditions for more than a billion people in the world who were living in extreme poverty."

"Several of these goals have implications for public health, and four have explicit health targets: …4. Reduce child mortality and achieve a two-thirds reduction in mortality in those younger than 5 years, by 2015; 5. Improve maternal health and reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio, by 2015; …See http://www.developmentgoals.org for a full account and discussion of the millennium development goals.
"

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100158284?rskey=Gu3Gyz&result=1







 

MB comment:  It is almost true that the Millennium Summit adopted the eight undated goals themselves.  However, the material is liable to mislead about what leaders pledged in 2000.

The Summit pledges were generally wider and more ambitious than the "MDG" targets proposed in 2001 by the Secretary-General. 

The latter are of uncertain basis in UN resolutions of the early 2000s.  

First, as the philosopher Thomas Pogge has pointed out for many years, several of the "MDG" targets have an easier baseline of 1990 which is not in the Millennium Summit pledges.  

The Oxford Reference page does not mention 1990.  But it makes clear (below) that "goals" refers to targets for 2015, not just the undated goals themselves.   It directs readers to a web site, now defunct, which clearly related to the 1990-based targets. It therefore seems liable to mislead.

Second, the "set" of Summit pledges designed to affect those in extreme poverty goes beyond the "MDGs".   The pledges are not limited to those in paragraph 19 of the Millennium Declaration.

Third, both the Millennium pledges and the "MDGs" relate to far more people than those in extreme poverty.


 

 

Women and Development




The International Studies Encyclopedia  

Edited by Robert A. Denemark and Renée Marlin-Bennett

The International Studies Encyclopedia, published in association with the International Studies Association (ISA), is the most comprehensive reference work of its kind for the fields of international studies and international relations. It brings together specially commissioned, peer reviewed essays, written and edited by an international team of the world's best scholars and teachers.

Wiley-Blackwell
Published online: 2017
Current Online Version: 2017

 


 





Measuring Global Poverty  
Shatakshee Dhongde
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"Millennium Development Goals…These goals are stated in the United Nations’ Millennium Declaration 
[!] which was adopted in 2000 by 189 nations. The first of the eight goals is to halve between 1990 [!] and 2015 the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day."

 

 

 


Women and Development  
Valentine M. Moghadam
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"...Millennium Development Goals ( MDG ) – eight objectives with specified targets regarding development and poverty alleviation agreed upon by the international community in 2000..."







What is Development?  
Gustavo Esteva
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 
2017

"In September 2000 the United Nations Millennium Declaration was produced, fostering a “global partnership” to reduce extreme poverty and defining eight Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) [!] – which range from halving extreme poverty to...all by the target date of 2015 – which form a blueprint agreed..."

 




Food Insecurity 
Christopher B. Barrett and Erin C. Lentz
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version:  2017

".. the first Millennium Development Goal – to halve [?] the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 – agreed by 189 countries in the UN’s 2000 Millennium Declaration." [!]


MB: Two mistakes.  The authors confuse the MDGs with the pledge, and the target with the MDG on eradication.

 



Foreign Aid  
David Arase
The International Studies Encyclopedia

"The new aid agenda was carried forward by the UN General Assembly in 2000 when it issued the Millennium Declaration. This instituted a results oriented plan for development aid encapsulated in the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ), which had previously been endorsed by the DAC and the World Bank. The plan conceives of development as..."

MB: Misleading.  The Millennium plan of 2000 was wider. 

Wider still is the agenda agreed in summits and conferences repeatedly reaffirmed by member states, including in 2013 and 2015. 

The goals "previously…endorsed by the DAC [the Development Assistance Committee of national representatives of the rich countries' club, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] and the World Bank" generally had baselines of 1990, like the so-called "Millennium" Development Goals. 

The Millennium Declaration has a baseline of 2000, not 1990.



 

Environmental Sustainability/Sufficiency  
Jack Manno
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"www.un.org/millenniumgoals/environ.shtml . This website promotes and supports Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals set in 2000 through the United Nations Millennium Declaration."





The Development Paradigm and Its Critics 
James H. Mittelman
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"A centerpiece of the dominant paradigm is the United Nations Millennium Declaration. After the leaders of 189 countries endorsed it in 2000 , international summits
hammered out the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs )."

 


MB: Civil servants, not summits, basically "hammered out" the MDG structure.

It is key to understanding the situation that the summits reaffirmed the more ambitious, wider commitments from the Millennium Declaration and other conferences and summits.

There were modifications to the MDG structure after the Johannesburg summit, which agreed a target on sanitation, and the 2005 World Summit.

The Johannesburg summit specified a 2000 baseline for the mortality targets.

 


Development/Poverty Issues and Foreign Policy Analysis
Steven W. Hook and Franklin Barr Lebo
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"The UN-sponsored Millennium Summit in New York City identified the end of extreme poverty as both a moral imperative and a prerequisite to global security."


MB:  Liable to mislead.  Did the UN not do that from its inception?

"Nearly every government attended the summit in September 2000 and approved eight Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ), with accompanying measures of..."

 

 

 

 

International Organization and Human Development  
David C. Ellis
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"The ultimate UN institutional validation of the human development framework was realized in 2000 with member states’ adoption of the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs )"




 

Security Council Resolution 1325  
Charlotte Graves Patton
The International Studies Encyclopedia
Current Version: 2017

"...the year 2000 saw a special session of the GA focused on five years after the FWCW (Beijing + 5); the GA adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which added momentum to the adoption of SC Res 1325."



MB: In which resolution do these authors claim the General Assembly adopted the MDGs?

 

 


A Dictionary of Economics




Oxford Dictionary of Economics
, Fifth edition
John Black, Nigar Hashimzade and Gareth Myles
Print Publication Date: 2017


"Millennium Development Goals

Eight goals adopted by world leaders in 2000
[!] with the intention that they will be achieved by 2015."

http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198759430.013.4139?rskey=UcvGk6&result=5




MB:  The above has two errors in one sentence. 

It is not the case that all of the undated "Millennium Development Goals" themselves, such as eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, were to be achieved by 2015. 

The "MDG" targets for 2015, which the authors presumably meant by the word "goals" even though they mentioned the number eight, were not "adopted by world leaders in 2000". 

The reference to 2015 makes an error more explicit than in some other material.

I do not know which resolution the authors would like to rely on if they want to claim that world leaders adopted the "MDGs" in some other year.  But it is not very important, since the reaffirmation by member states in subsequent years of more ambitious pledges makes the "MDGs" to a significant degree redundant.

I am not sure why the authors are interested in "MDGs" of dubious status in UN resolutions of the early 2000s, rather than a) the actual Millennium commitments, and/or b) the other summit and conference outcomes which made up the UN agenda for the 21st century and 2015 in particular. 

 


 

 

Millennium Development Goals



A Dictionary of Business and Management in India 
Current Version: 2017


Millennium Development Goals  

"The eight international development goals established by the Millennium Summit of the United Nations held in 2000"

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191829000.001.0001/acref-9780191829000-e-0107?rskey=Gu3Gyz&result=2



Misleading. 

The Millennium Declaration adopted at the Summit established more goals relevant to international development than in the MDG structure proposed in 2001.  This is easily visible in the Secretary-General's "Road Map" of 6 September 2001 giving his version of what the Millennium Declaration goals were.   "The eight" therefore misleads.

Targets which were similar in the MDG structure were in some cases more ambitious in the actual pledges.

The Summit pledges did not have the easier baseline of 1990.   Due to the common usage of "Millennium Development Goals" to refer to time-limited targets, the material is liable to give the wrong impression that the "MDG" targets for 2015 were what leaders pledged to achieve.




Development, numbers, and politics


"the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the United Nations in 2000

Alan Whiteside
Development, numbers, and politics
in
HIV and AIDS, Very Short Introduction
Second edition
November 2016
http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0006?rskey=UcvGk6&result=13

 





 



Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)



Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)  

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Current Version: 2016


"Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millenium Declaration,
[!] which was adopted during the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 to be achieved by 2015, the eight MDGs break down into 18 quantifiable targets measured by 48 indicators."




"Drawn from" misleads. 

Again, the MDG targets for 2015 were generally diluted from the Millennium Declaration pledges rather than being "drawn from" it.

The pledges have been constantly reaffirmed in resolutions of the UN General Assembly since 2000, along with other more ambitious summit and conference outcome targets and pledges.

It appears that Oxford Reference have concentrated on the wrong aims, since the UN agenda included the conference and summit outcomes as a whole, not just the "MDGs".   

Not all those agreed objectives and commitments expired in 2015.


Millennium Development Goals



Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Print Publication Date:  2010
Print ISBN-13: 9780190622664
Published online: 2016

 
Millennium Development Goals
(Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability)  

Rebeca GRYNSPAN and Luis F. LOPEZ-CALVA

"189 countries adopted the Millennium Declaration. Through that declaration they committed themselves to alleviate extreme poverty and to tackle several deprivations, setting eight [?] broad, quantifiable objectives"



Clearly understates the Declaration's "quantifiable" pledges. 

May mislead that particular objectives could be reliably measured.





 

World Bank  
Marisa B. VAN SAANEN
Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability
Current Version: 2016

"Development progress is measured by a wide range of benchmarks, including the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ), adopted in 2000 [!] by the international community as a common framework for action and a way to track progress on fundamental development goals."

 


Wrong baseline.


 

United Nations–China Relations




Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Current Version: 2016
Print Publication Date: 2009


United Nations–China Relations  
June Grasso

"On 8 September 2000 , the U.N. overwhelmingly approved the Millennium Declaration, whose objective is to promote peace, security and disarmament."


MB: Not complete enough to be accurate.   An account of the "objective" of the Millennium Declaration should include some of these:  human rights, Security Council reform, governance.



"It also pledged to reduce by half the number
[!] of people with incomes of less than one dollar a day by 2015"

Should be "proportion". 



 







United Nations




The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Oxford Reference
Current Version:
 2014


United Nations  
Craig N. Murphy
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Oxford Reference
Current Version:
 2014

"In 2000, he held the Millennium Summit that he hoped would lead to significant structural reform, including a relatively open civil society assembly. That agreement did not emerge, but the summit did adopt a set of global antipoverty targets, the Millennium Development Goals[!]

 

 



World Bank  
Katherine Marshall
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version: 2014

"... the very notions of development have changed radically, from a somewhat abstract ideal (freedom from want) to a demanding and central international goal."

 
MB: Human rights declarations are more, not less, demanding than "halving extreme poverty in fifteen years".


"From the early 1960s, but especially with the year 2000 formulation of a Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals, the idea that a decent life was the right of all world citizens, and that an international community shared a responsibility for making it possible took form."


MB:  In fact the goals were retreats from such already-formed ideas. 
Those ideas took form at least as long ago as the 1940s, as the international agreements  show.

Interestingly, a theme of the new SDGs adopted after this book's publication is that they are claimed to have a new focus on "leaving no-one behind"!   

Perhaps, like some other academics, the author has accepted what governments claim, or the words of people repeating those claims, without question – as she seems to have done in relation to the "2000 formulation" of the "MDGs".

 



 

Population Policy  
Barbara B. Crane and John May
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version: 2014


"In September 2000 , at a United Nations conference in New York, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals ..."






Millennium Development Goals  
David Hulme
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version: 2014


"...the IDGs in DAC"

MB: The author is referring to the 1990-baseline International Development Goals of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the richer countries' club.  These goals were formulated in 1996, and less ambitious than the pledges in the 1996 World Food Summit declaration or the  Millennium Declaration.

"and the broader goals of the Millennium Declaration in the UN."

MB: The author omits the crucial point that the Millennium Summit baseline was more demanding.




David Hulme
"There were two options for resolving this issue. ...
 The second was to merge the two. This also posed potential problems. Annan
 could not be seen to be modifying the Millennium Declaration..." [!]

MB: The author omits the crucial point that Annan did modify the Declaration pledges.



David Hulme:  "Building on [?] the United Nation's Millennium Declaration of 2000, a set of UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was agreed in 2001 "

MB:  The above is misleading, if people take it to mean that nations agreed the MDG targets in 2001.

In reality member states in 2001 responded to Kofi Annan's 58-page "Road Map" containing the MDG structure and much else, on 14 December 2001. 

In that resolution, 56/95, they did not mention the "MDGs" or the annex containing them but instead called for publicity for the Declaration.

Secondly, the claim that the MDGs were "building on the Millennium Declaration" is liable to mislead.

The MDGs were in fact to a significant extent, though not in all areas, "cutting down".]


David Hulme:  "(see Table 1 for a list and other details). These eight goals defined development as poverty reduction on a path toward global poverty eradication."

MB: Was it not rather the Millennium Declaration, and the resolutions, summits and conferences since the 1940s, which "defined development as poverty reduction on a path toward global poverty eradication" ?



David Hulme: "The MDGs may be regarded as an unprecedented international political achievement—underpinned by the unanimous approval of all 189 UN member states..."

MB: That is misleading in context, since the article gives no indication of a date for the claimed unanimous approval apart from 2001. 

The United States generally claimed until at least 2006 that it had not agreed what is generally understood by the term "MDGs".  The article seems to me to be most naturally read as saying 189 member states agreed the MDG structure in 2001, which idea has no basis in UN resolutions.

The MDGs as an agreement clearly did have a "precedent" in the form of the Millennium Declaration. 


 

 

Functionalism  
Craig N. Murphy
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version:  2014

"Millennium Development Goals, the global antipoverty goals for 2015 agreed upon by the world's leaders in 2000 ."





Food Politics  
James A. Paul
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version: 2014

"In 2000 , when the UN set its Millennium Development Goals..."

 

 

Economic Commission for Africa  
Guy Martin
The Oxford Companion to International Relations
Current Version: 2014

"the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDG, 2000)"

 

 

development

 

Oxford Dictionary of Human Geography
Current Version: 2013



"sustainable development  

…Ensuring environmental sustainability was one of the Millennium Development Goals ( 2000 )"




"development 

Participation is the latest watchword. The Millennium Development Goals , adopted by the United Nations in 2000 prioritize basic needs such as health and water."

 

MB:  The words diminish participation.


................................

International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status



The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women
Current Version: 2013




International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status  
Roja Fazaeli
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women
Current Version: 2013

"The year 2000 was marked by the global summit held at the United Nations in New York, which launched the Millennium campaign for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). [!]

Among the goals, the third and fifth goals are directly related to women's rights by promoting gender equality and empowerment of women…"

MB:  Understating pledges disempowers women. 



"…and improving maternal health. Another crucial international law document produced in 2000 was ..."

 

 

 

 

Millennium Development Goals


The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)
Current Version: 2012



"Millennium Development Goals  
At the United Nations Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000, the UN Secretary-General agreed to report annually to the General Assembly on the progress made towards achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs).  [!]

Endorsed so far by 192 states of the world, MDGs are an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty, ending deprivations, and assuring citizens of their human rights
".  [!]




MB: On the error in the first paragraph above, paragraph 31 of the Millennium Declaration reads:
"We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action."
One of the co-chairpersons stated:
www.un.org/press/en/2000/20000908.ga9758.doc.html
"I ... call upon [the new President of the General Assembly, Harri Holkeri] to ensure the implementation of the Millennium Declaration and pay particular attention to paragraph 31."
The explicit references to human rights are in the Declaration, not in "development" goals.

Halving hunger in fifteen years clearly does not "assure citizens of their human rights" in terms of agreed human rights, and so the author's claim that the agenda is for "assuring citizens of their human rights is clearly, according to agreed human rights standards including the rights to life and food, untrue.



Dictionary of African Biography




Dictionary of African Biography
Oxford Reference 
Current Version:
 2011
Print Publication Date:  2012


"
Annan, Kofi Atta (1938)  

…"…that human rights are a Western “imposition” or “plot” was “demeaning of the yearning for human dignity that resides in every African heart.”

In 2000 , Annan
called on heads of state toagree to a blueprint of time-bound targets that became known as the Millennium Development Goals, [!] which were soon incorporated into global economic and social development discourse. When world leaders returned to New York to review progress..."




 

 

United Nations


The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace
Current Version: 2010



United Nations  
The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace
Current Version: 2010

"... the Millennium Declaration of the General Assembly in 2000 , which called for eight Millennium Development Goals"



Poverty and Conflict
The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace
Current Version: 2010

"According to the Millennium Development Goals ( MDG ) adopted by the United Nations in 2000"

 

 


 



Economic Levels



The Oxford Companion to Global Change
Current Version: 2009



Economic Levels  

"The United Nations Millennium Development Goals, adopted in September, 2000 [!] by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, [?] identifies targets to be achieved by the year 2015"


Incorrect and misleading.

 

 


Social Development


Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Current Version: 2008



 
"The UN also advanced another lofty set of goals in 2005 , known as the United Nations Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals ( MDG's )"

 


 


 
 

 
MB:  That is two sets of goals, not one. 

 


 

 

Southeast Asia

 

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History
Current Version: 2008



Southeast Asia  

"The Millennium Development Goals set out in the United Nations Millennium Declaration 
( 2000 ) also include an agenda for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women globally."



MB: It disempowers women to tell them governments pledged less than they actually did on saving children's and mothers' lives.



 

UNESCO  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History
Current Version: 2008

"UNESCO also signed on to the U.N. Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals, adopted in 2000 [!] with a target date of 2015 . The third of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to end gender disparities through women's educational achievement and political participation."

 


 

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/covers/9780195341126.jpg


Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Current Version: 2008


"United Nations  

…Sub-Saharan Africa was a major focus of the UN's Millennium Development Goals
( MDGs ). These were set by the General Assembly in 2000 to be achieved over the following fifteen years."




Health and Disease
 
 
Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World
Current Version: 2008

"...in 1978 the WHO proposed a program of “Health for All by the Year 2000 .” Twenty years later, as the millennium approached, the WHO promulgated its famous Millennium Development Goals. In addition to reducing gender inequality, illiteracy, and environmental degradation worldwide, the Millennium Development Goals set targets…"


http://www.oxfordreference.com/search?btog=chap&isQuickSearch=true&pageSize=100&q=%22millennium+declaration%22+1990+mortality&sort=relevance



Medicine and Public Health  
Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World
Current Version: 2008

"In 2000 , Middle Eastern and North African governments adopted the U.N. Millennium Development Goals"

 

 


Cover for 

Encyclopedia of Human Rights



Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Oxford University Press
Editor in Chief: David P Forsythe

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/encyclopedia-of-human-rights-9780195334029?cc=us&lang=en&




Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living  
Encyclopedia of Human Rights
Current Version: 2009

"...on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights released its landmark General Comment 12 on the Right to Adequate Food (Article 11), described in the following section.

All these efforts were given further impetus at the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000 . The eight Millennium Development Goals, supported by all 189 nations at the summit..."





More grounded in fact, though the second sentence omits the commitments beyond the Millennium Declaration:

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights  
Encyclopedia of Human Rights
Current Version: 2009

"...realization of human rights, development, and security form the principal interrelated objectives of the United Nations. The strengthening of the UN system, reflecting the need for a strong multilateral institution to more effectively meet the challenges set out in the UN Millennium Declaration, has been a constant theme on the UN's political agenda."

 

 

 








 

 

UNCCD


Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Current Version: 2009




"Millennium Development Goals  

Eight
[?] development goals were set by U.N. General Assembly's Millennium Declaration (Res. 55/2 of 18 September 2000 )… These MDGs [!] comprise 21 quantifiable targets"





UNCCD  
Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)
Current Version: 2009

"UNCCD is charged with the implementation of the goals of the Convention, now reinforced by the Millennium Development Goals relating to extreme poverty and hunger: General Assembly Res. 55/2 of 18 September 2000 ."

 




Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)
Current Version: 
2009

United Nations Development Programme 

"At the U.N. Millennium Summit in September 2000 , a number of Millennium Development Goals were adopted"




MB:  Not goals. Resolutions - what leaders said they "resolved" to do.  
Generally more ambitious than the "MDG" structure which the dictionary is liable to mislead was what leaders "adopted" in 2000.




 

World Bank


Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Current Version: 2008

World Bank  

"the bank now subscribes to the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2000"

 

 


 

 

Cover for 

A Dictionary of Public Health



A Dictionary of Public Health  
Edited by John M. Last
2007

"Millennium Development Goals

A set of eight goals adopted at the UN Millennium Summit

http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195160901.013.2871

 

Almost true in respect of the undated goals, but misleading in context. 

Readers are likely, in some cases perhaps especially if they have seen other Oxford Reference material, to assume the authors are referring to the dated targets.






 



 

 

 

 

 

 

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